Anti-ghostwriting  procedure and plagiarism detection policy

The editorial board of the journal Equilibrium implements anti-ghostwriting  procedure and strict plagiarism detection policy. The journal content is indexed in Similarity Check, the CrossRef initiative to prevent scholarly and professional plagiarism.

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Anti-ghostwriting  procedure: the editors consider the “ghostwriting” and “guest authorship” as a sign of very serious scientific misconduct. All the detected cases of the  “ghostwriting” and “guest authorship”  will be exposed, including notification of relevant institutions. As a result, the publisher of the journal Equilibrium has introduced procedures to address the phenomena of “ghostwriting” and “guest au-thorship”. All the authors must fulfill and sign the declaration concerning “ghost-writing” and “guest authorship”. The definitions of “ghostwriting” and “guest au-thorship” by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education is available  at the web-site of the journal.

We invite all individuals involved in research in Poland, as well as economists from foreign scientific centers to cooperate with us. All the works sent to us are verified by the Scientific Council and after preliminary qualification shall be forwarded for anonymous evaluation by independent reviewers.

1. In Equilibrium, only articles in English are published. Only the articles with a high quality of English language will be qualified for reviewing and final publication process.

2. Only the works published for the first time appear in our journal.

3. The article, together with literature and abstracts, must have the minimum length of 20 thousand characters and the maximum lenghts of 35 thousand charactes with spaces. If the article is longer than 35 thousand characters, the author is charges with additional publiation fee.

4. Title references to any material that has been provided by a previous authors, or been published in another source should be set in harmonization with Harvard norms – APA styles (American Psychological Association 6th edition). The article must fulfill all the formatting and editorial criteria that are available in formatting template at website of the journal in download section. The articles should be prepared in the formatting template.

5. The condition for forwarding the text for the reviewing process is an absolute compliance with the editorial requirements. The evaluation form is available for download in the download section.

6. Specific methodological requirements for research papers

The Papers submitted to Equilibrium should contain results of empirical research and are strictly evaluated in regard to their methodological rigor. The article must provide detailed information on the applied methods. The information on methodology must include:

a) dates of research (field work) or time period of the analyzed data;
b) data sources used and the empirical research;
c) description of the data collection methods and source of the data (e.g., national/international official statistics, surveys, interviews, observations, experiments, content analysis etc.);
d) in the case of presentation of survey results: structure of the population, type of the sample, its size and information about its adjustments, as well as sampling error; type of the questions (e.g., open, closed, semi-closed, etc.); authors of methodological tools;
e) description of the methods of data analysis (e.g., also in the case of basic statistical methods such as estimating correlation coefficients – their statistical dependencies must be indicated; when using factor analysis – the percentage of explained variance has to be provided);
e) brief summary on the positive and negative aspects of applied methods: testing of methodological tools, difficulties in the implementation of the initial research concept, discovery of the problems with the methodological tools, unpredictable organizational and methodical situations.
f) in the main body of the article the author must directly refer to all tables and figures, for example: “Figure 1 presents the results…”; “The results of the research given in figure 1 indicate…”. When formatting tables one should indicate specific information about the provided data.

7. Manuscripts should be submitted online at website of the journal: With the electronic version of the text all graphs, figures and drawings in editing form with the original files such as Excel, must be submitted. The formal condition for starting the evaluation and publication process is submission of signed and scanned article submission card in a PDF file. The article submission card is available in the download section. The article submission card contains the statement of transfer of copyrights/related rights. In addition, the author should send by regular mail a hardcopy of the article submission card to the address:


Adam P. Balcerzak
Katedra Ekonomii
 Wydział Nauk Ekonomicznych i Zarządzania
Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika
Ul. Gagarina 13A
87-100 Toruń


After successful online submission the author receives the automatic e-mail confirmation that the files have been uploaded to the system.


In accordance with the Law of Poland on Protection of Personal Data in the case of rejection of the article all the submitted documents in electronic version will be deleted from the publication system, hardcopy documents will be removed from the publisher’s documentation and destroyed.


8.Unsolicited materials will not be returned.

9.The author, after the decision of editorial board (the first stage of evaluation process, which usually takes from about two to four weeks), receives electronic information about acceptance of the paper and its transfer to the reviewers.

10. After receiving the reviews of the article, the author is obliged to send the response to the reviews in an electronic form, with the revised text taking into account the suggestions of the reviewers. The response to the reviews card is available in the download section. In the response to the review the author must answer to all the problems and suggestion indicated by the reviewer. The author must indicate all the changes that were made in the final version of the paper with precise location of these changes (number of page and paragraph of the manuscript). The final version of the article should be submitted electronically at the email address: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. The deadline for the implementation of the author's corrections is a maximum of 2 weeks. Failure to meet the deadline may result in delayed publication of the article.

11. Publication fee: standard publication fee for authors with Polish affiliation – 950,00 PLN; standard publication fee for authors with non-Polish affiliation 200 Euro. Invited articles are published free of charge.


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